
教师姓名: 黄真 
所在部门: 教学科研补充 
性 别: 男 
现有职称: 其它 
出生年月: 19360216 
导师身份: 无 
民 族: 汉 
学 位: 学士 
政治面貌: 党员 
联系电话: 
学 历: 本科 
电子信箱: 
毕业院校: 哈尔滨工业大学，1959年毕业 
现任职务: 
通讯地址: 秦皇岛燕山大学机械工程学院 066004 

 基本教学信息
 本科教学信息

 教学项目及获奖
 研究生教学信息
 学科及研究方向
 1.[博士]机械电子工程(080202)，研究方向：机器人技术及并联机器人
 研究生招生信息
 每年招收博士生1～2名和硕士生2～3名：见燕山大学研究生招生信息。
 硕士教学信息

 博士教学信息

 科研信息
 在研项目信息
 1. 国家自然科学基金，50275129，数目为4和5的少自由度并联机器人机构性质研究， 20万， 2003－2005
2. 863"计划，新型并联机床机构构型和设计方法与关键技术研究，" (第一主研人参加)，2001AA421280，5 万，2001－2005
3. 河北省高层次特别优秀人才支持计划，60万，2003－2008
4. 国家自然科学基金，50575197, 运动链新拓扑理论和对应有特点的数据库建立机理研究, 25万， 2006－2008
 完成项目信息

 专著、专利信息
 1. 黄真，赵永生，赵铁石，《高等空间机构学》，北京：高等教育出版社，2006
2. 黄真，孔令富，方跃法，《并联机器人机构学理论及控制》，北京：机械工业出版社，1997
3. 黄真，《空间机构学》，北京：机械工业出版社，1991
 学术论文信息
 1. Huang Z, Cao Y, Li YW, Chen LH, Structure and Property of the Singularity Loci of the 3/6StewartGough Platform for General Orientations, Robotica, 2006, 24:7584
2. Dai, J.S., Huang, Z, Lipkin, H., Mobility of Overconstrained Parallel Mechanisms, Transactions of the ASME: Journal of Mechanical Design, Volume 128, Issue 1, 2006, pp.220229.
3. Huang Z, Cao Y, Property Identification of the Singularity Loci of a Class of Gough Stewart Manipuylators, The International Journal of Robotics Research. 2005, 24(8): 675685
4. Huang Z., S.H. Li, R.G. Zuo, Feasible instantaneous motions and kinematic characteristics of a special 3DOF 3UPU parallel manipulator, Mechanism and Machine Theory, 2004，39(9): 957970
5. Q. C. Li, Z. Huang, and J. M. Herve. Type Synthesis of 3R2T 5DOF Parallel Mechanisms Using the Lie Group of Displacements, IEEE Trans on Robotics and Automation, 2004, 20(2): 173180
6. Q. C. Li, Z. Huang. Mobility Analysis of a Novel 35r Parallel Mechanism Family. ASME Journal of Mechanical Design, 2004, 126(1): pp.7982.
7. Xu L.Z., Huang Z., Yang Y.L., Mech Theory for Toroidal Drive, ASME J of Mechanical Design, 2004,126:551557
8. Li, Qinchuan, Huang Zhen, A Family of symmetrical lowermobility Parallel mechanisms with spherical and parallel subchains, Journal of Robotic Systems, 2003,20(6):297305
9. Huang Z., L. H. Chen, Y. W. Li, The Singularity Principle and Property of Stewart Parallel Manipulator, Journal of Robotic Systems, 20(4):163176, 2003.
10. L.Z. Xu, Z. Huang, Y. L. Yang, Contact Stress for Toroidal Drive, ASME Transection Journal of Machincal Design, 125(1):165168, 2003
11. Huang Zhen, Li, Qinchuan, Type synthesis of symmetrical lowermobility parallel mechanisms using constraintsynthesis method, The International Journal of Robotics Research, 22(1): 5979, 2003.
12. Wang, ShaoChi; Hikita, Hiromitsu; Kubo, Hiroshi; Zhao, YongSheng; Huang, Zhen;Kinematics and dynamics of a 6 degreeoffreedom fully parallel manipulator with elastic joints, Mechanism and Machine Theory, Volume: 38, Issue: 5, May, 2003, pp. 439461
13. Huang Z. and Q. C. Li. General Methodology for Type Synthesis of LowerMobility Symmetrical Parallel Manipulators and Several Novel manipulators. International Journal of Robotics Research, 2002, 21(2): 131145.
14. Huang Z, Wang J, Analysis of Instantaneous Motions of DeficientRank 3RPS Parallel Manipulators, Mechanism and Machine Theory, 2002, 37(2):229240,
15. T.S.Zhao, J S. Dai, Z. Huang, Geometric Analysis of Overconstrained Parallel Manipulators with Three and Four Degrees of Freedom, JSME International Journal, Series C, 2002, 45(3):730740
16. Zhao TS, Dai JS, Huang Z ,Geometric Synthesis of Spatial Parallel manipulators with fewer than six Degree of Freedom, P I MECH ENG CJ MEC 216 (12): 11751185 2002
17. Huang Z., Wang J., Identification of principal screws of 3DOF parallel manipulators by quadric degeneration, Mechanism and Machine Theory, 2001, Vol 36(8): 893911
18. Zhao Y S, Lu Ling, Zhao T S, Du Y H, Huang Z, Dynamic Performance Analysis of SixLegged Walking machines, Mechanism and Machine Theory,2000, 35: 155163
19. Majid MZA, Huang Z, Yao YL, Workspace Analysis of a SixDOF ThreePPRS Parallel Manipulator. Int. J. Advanced Manufacturing Technology, 2000,16:441449
20. Zhao Y.S., Ren J.Y., Huang Z., Dynamic Loads Coordination for Multiple Cooperating Robot Manipulators, Mechanism and Machine Theory,2000, 35:985995
21. Huang Z. Yao Y. L., Extension of Usable Workspace of Rotational Axes in Robot Planing, Robotica, 1999, 17: 293301
22. Huang Z., Yao Y L. A New ClosedForm Kinematics of the Generalized 3DOF Spherical Parallel Manipulator. Robotica, 1999,17:475485
23. Huang Z, Zhao Y, Wang J, Yu J, Kinematic Principle and Geometrical Condition of GeneralLinearComplex Special Configuration of Parallel Manipulators. Mechanism and Machine Theory, 1999, 34(8): 1171－1186
24. Zhao T. S., Huang Z., Study on Adeptability of A Seacrab and Its Bionics Mechanism Model, Mechanism and Machine Theory,1999. 34(8):12711280
25. Fang Y. F., Huang Z., Analytical Identification of the Principal Screws of the third order Screw system, Mechanism and Machine Theory,1998,33(7):987992
26. Wang H.B., Ishimatus T.Schaerer C. Huang Z., Kinematics of a FiveDegreesofFreedom Prosthetic Arm, Mechanism and Machine Theory,1998,33(7):895908
27. Fang Y. F., Huang Z., Kinematics of a ThreedegreesofFreedom Inparallel Actuated Manipulator Mechanism, Mechanism and Machine Theory 1997, 32(7):789796
28. Huang Z. Fang Y. Kinematic Characteristics Analysis of 3DOF InParallel Actuated Pyramid Mechanisms, Mechanism and Machine Theory, 1996, 31(8): 10091018
29. Huang Z., Tao W. S., Fang Y.F., Study on the Kinematic Characteristics of 3DOF InParallel Actuated Platform Mechanisms, Mechanism and Machine Theory, 1996, 31(8):9991007
30. Huang Z. Zhao Y.S., The Accordance and OptimizationDistribution equations of the OverDeterminate Inputs of Walking Machines, Mechanism and Machine Theory, 1994, 29(2): 327332
31. Huang Z, Wang H.B., Dynamic Force Analysis of nDOF MultiLoop Complex Spatial Mechanisms, Mechanism and Machine Theory, 1992, 27(1), 97105
32. Wang H.B., Huang Z., Kinematic Influence Coefficient Method of Kinematic and Dynamic Analysis, Mechanism and Machine Theory,1990,25(2):167173
33. Liu D.Y., Huang Z., Input Torque Balancing of Linkage, Mechanism and Machine Theory,1989,24(2):99103
34. Huang Z., Error Analysis of Position and Orientation in Robot Manipulator, Mechanism and Machine Theory,1987,22(6):577581
国际会议
35. Zhu SJ, Huang Z, Guo XJ, Forward/reverse Velocity and Acceleration Analyses for a Class of LowerMobility Parallel Mechanisms, ASME 2005 paper DETC200584081 美国加州
36. Huang Z, Zhu SJ., Kinematic Analyses of 5DOF 3RCRR Parallel Mechanism, ASME 2005 paper DETC200584462 美国加州
37. CaoY, Huang Z. Ge QJ., OrientationSingularity and Orientation Capability Analysis of The StewartGough Manipulator, ASME 2005 paper DETC200584556 美国加州
38. Li SH, Huang Z. Instantaneous Kinematic Characteristics of a Special 3UPU Parallel Manipulator, ASME 2005 paper DETC200584098 美国加州
39. Li SH, Huang Z. Wu J. A Novel 3DOF 35R Parallel Platform Mechanism and its Position Analysis, ASME 2005 paper DETC200584099 美国加州
40. Ding HF. Huang Z., The Novel Characteristics Representations of Kinematic Chains and Their Application, ASME 2005 paper DETC200584282 美国 加州
41. Ding HF. Huang Z., Cai Y., The Systemic Research on Loop Characteristics of Planar Kinematic Chains and its Application, ASME 2005 paper DETC200584283 美国 加州
42. Jian S. Dai, Zhen Huang and Harvey Lipkin,, Screw System Analysis of Parallel Mechanisms and Applications to Constraint and Mobility Study, DETC200457604, 2004 美国 盐湖城
43. Qinchuan Li, Xudong Hu, Zhen Huang, Jacobian Derivation of 5DOF 3R2T Parallel Mechanisms, DETC200457276, 2004 美国 盐湖城
44. Yi Cao，Zhen Huang，Property Identification of the Singularity Loci of the Stewart Manipulator, Proc. of the 10th IASTED International Conference on Robotics and Application, pp.59, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA, 2004 美国夏威夷
45. Huang Zhen, The Kinematics and Type Synthesis of LowerMobility Parallel Manipulators, Proceedings of the 11th World Congress in Mechanism and Machine Science, April 14, 2004, Tianjin, China.6576 (The keynote paper of the Conference) 天津
46. Jing Wang, Zhen Huang, C. M. Gosselin, Analysis of the Kinematic Characteristics of 3DOF Mechanisms, Proceedings of the 11th World Congress in Mechanism and Machine Science, August 18–21, 2003, Tianjin, China,153157 天津
47. L.J.Zhang, Y. Q. Cui, J.G. Luo, Z. Huang, A novel CompoundSphere Joint and Its Application in Parallel Machine Tool, Proceedings of the 11th World Congress in Mechanism and Machine Science, August 18–21, 2003, Tianjin, China,19921998 天津
48. X.J. Guo, S.J. Zhu, Z. Huang, Velocity and Acceleration Performance Indices Analysis of Spatial 2Loop Mechanism RSSRSC, Proceedings of the 11th World Congress in Mechanism and Machine Science, August 18–21, 2003, Tianjin, China,11081111 天津
49. Q. Li and Z. Huang, Mobility Analysis of a Novel 35R Parallel Mechanism Family, IEEE ICRA 2003, 18871892 台北
50. Q. Li and Z. Huang, Type synthesis of 4DOF parallel manipulators, IEEE ICRA 2003: 755760 台北
51. Q. Li and Z. Huang, Type synthesis of 5DOF parallel manipulators, IEEE ICRA 2003:12031208 台北
52. Q. Li and Z. Huang, Mobility analysis of lowermobility parallel manipulators based on screw theory, IEEE ICRA 2003 台北
53. Y. W. LI, Z. Huang, L.H. CHEN, , Singular Loci Analysis of 3/6Stewart Manipulator by SingularityEquivalent mechanism, IEEE CRA 2003 台北
54. Shihua Li, Zhen Huang, Rongguo Zuo, KINEMATICS OF A SPECIAL 3DOF 3UPU PARALLEL MANIPULATOR, ASME paper, DETC2002/MECH34322,2002 加拿大 蒙特利尔
55. Z. Huang, Q. C. Li, Construction and Kinematic Properties of 3UPU Parallel Mechanisms, ASME paper, DETC2002/MECH34321, 10271033, 加拿大 蒙特利尔
56. Z. Huang, L. H. Chen, Singularity Principle and Distribution of 63 Stewart Parallel Manipulator, ASME paper, DETC2002/MECH34237, 2002, 加拿大 蒙特利尔
57. Z. Huang, Q. C. Li, Some Novel Lowermobility Parallel Mechanisms, ASME paper, DETC2002/MECH34299, 2002 加拿大 蒙特利尔
58. Y. S. Zhao, Q. C. Li, X. P. Guan, Z. Huang, Dynamic Modeling of Multiple Cooperating Manipulators, ASME paper, DETC2002/MECH34214,2002 加拿大 蒙特利尔
59. Z Huang, Q. C. Li, On the Type Synthesis of LowerMobility Parallel Manipulators, 2002 ASME Conference Workshop, Quebic, 2002 加拿大 魁北克
60. Z. Huang, QC. Li, Some Novel MonorMobility Parallel Mechanisms, Parallel Kinematics Seminar, Fraunhofer IWU, Chemnitz, Germany, 2002:895905 德国
61. Huang Zhen, Wang J. Kinematics of 3DOF Pyramid Manipulator by principal screws, Proc. of 2000 ASME DETC/MECH14061. 美国 巴尔的摩
62. Zhao T S. and Huang Z., A novel ThreeDOF Translational Platform Mechanism and its Kinematics. Proc. of 2000 ASME DETC/MECH14101.美国 巴尔的摩
63. Huang Z., Wang J. Instantaneous Motion Analysis of DeficientRank 3DOF Parallel Manipulator by Means of Principal Screws, A Symposium Commemorating the Legacy, Works, and Life of Sir Robert Stawell Ball Upon the 100th Anniversary of “A Treatise on the Theory of Screws”2000 英国 剑桥
64. Abdul MajidMZ, Yao YL, Huang Z. Workspace Analysis of a new Parallel Manipulator, Technical PaperSociety of Manufacturing Engineers, N MS99192, MS991921－MS991926,1999
65. Zhao Y. S., Zhao T. S., Du y.h., Huang Z., Task Space Dynamic Analysis of Walking Machines, Proc. of the 3rd Asian Conference on Robotics and its Application, 1997, Tokyo, 405410
66. Zhao Y. S., Du Y. H., Zhao T.S., Huang Z., The Novel Approach for the Optimal Dynamic Loads Distribution of Multiple Cooperating Manipulators, Proc. of International Conference on Mechanical Transmission and Mechanisms, 1997,Tianjin, 970973
67. Wang J., Huang Z., Zu W. B., Instantaneous Motions of PUMA 760 Industrial Robot at Special Configurations, Proc. of International Conference on Mechanical Transmission and Mechanisms, 1997,Tianjin, 921924
68. Du Y. H., Zhao Y. S., Huang Z., Energy Consumption Analysis of Longhorned beetle walking in tripod gait, Proc. of International Conference on Mechanical Transmission and Mechanisms, 1997,Tianjin, 978980
69. Huang Z. Zhao T.S., The Specific Resistance of Seacrab’s WalkingLegged System Model, IEEE Int. Conf. On SMC, Vancouver, 1995, 17351739
70. Huang Z., Fang Y., Motion Characteristics and Rotational Axis Analysis of Three DOF Parallel Robot Mechanisms, IEEE Int. Conf. on SMC, 1995, Vancouver, 6771
71. Kong L. F., Ma L. S., Huang Z., Cai H. G., The 6DOF Hydraulic parallel Manipulator Motion Track Adaptive Control, Proc. of the 2nd Asian Conference on Robotics and its Application, 1994，434437
72. Wu S. F., Liu D. Y., Huang Z.,A Direct Displacement Solution to a spatial fully Parallel sixRRRS Mechanisms , Proc. of the 2nd Asian Conference on Robotics and its Application,1994,283288
73. Qu Y. Y., Zhao Y. S., Huang Z., Special Configuration of the spatial Parallel Robot manipulator 6SPS ,International Conference on Spatial Mechanisms and High Class Mechanisms. Almaty, Oct.46,1994
74. Huang Z.,Liu D. Y., and Wu S. F., A direct Displacement Solution to a sixlegged sixRRR walking machine , International Conference on Spatial Mechanisms and High Class Mechanisms. Almaty, Oct.46,1994
75. Wang H. B., Huang Z., Kinematics Analysis of a Prosthetic Arm, The 3rd International Conference On Automation, Robotics and Computer Vision, Singapore, 1994, 682686
76. Kong L. F., Huang Z., Cai H. G., The 2DOF PID control calculation computer Parallel process & its use in manipulator ,International Conference on Workshop on Algorithms & Computation,Beijing,1994
77. Kong L. F., Huang Z., Cai H. G The 6DOF Parallel manipulator MRACS & control calculation computer Parallel Process, International Conference on Workshop on Algorithms & Computation, Beijing,1994
78. Liu D. Y., Huang Z., Synthesis of Planar Linkages to Generate the Specified Zeroorder or Firstorder Transmission Function, The Sixth Inter.Conf.on the TMM. Liberec, Czechoslovakia, 1992, 143147
79. Wu S.F., Wang H. B., Tan F.Z., Huang Z., The Relation Between Workspace and Construction Parameters of the Parallel Robot Manipulator, Proc. of Asian Conference on Robotics and its Application, 1991, Hong Kong,425428
80. Kong L. F., Huang Z., Cai H. G., The 6DOF Hydraulic Parallel Manipulator Motion Track Adaptive control , Proc. of the 2nd Asian Conference on Robotics and its Application, 1991,434437
81. Huang Z, Qu Y. Y., Zhao Y. S., Special Configuration and its Properties of Spatial Parallel Manipulator 6SPS Mechanism, Proc. of 8th IFToMM World Congress on TMM, Prague, Czechoslovakia, 1991, Vol. 4, 991994
82. Huang Z., Shi Z. D., Principle and Synthesis of MiniFlywheel with Variable Equivalent Mass Moment of Inertia, Proc. of 7th IFToMM World Congress on TMM, Sevilla Spain,1987, 473476
83. Huang Z., Liu D. Y., Shaking Moment Balancing of ForceBalancing sixbar Linkages, ASME paper 86DET167, 1986
84. Huang Z. Wang H. B., Dynamic Force Analysis of SixDOF Parallel MultiLoop Robot Manipulators, ASME Paper 86DET168, 1986
85. Yan J., Huang Z., An Instantaneous Screw Kinematic Analysis of Parallel Robot, IFAC International Symposium on Theory of Robot, 1986, Vienna
86. Huang Z., Error Analysis of Robot Manipulator and Error Transmission Function, The 15th International Symposium on Industrial Robot, 1986, Tokyo, 873878
87. Huang Zhen, Modeling Formulation of 6DOF multiloop Parallel Manipulators, Part1: Kinematic Influence Coefficients, Proc. of the 4th IFToMM International Symposium on Linkage and Computer Aided Design Methods, 1985, Bucharest, Romania, Vol. Ⅱ1, 155162
88. Huang Zhen, Modeling Formulation of 6DOF multiloop Parallel Manipulators, Part2:Dynamic Modeling and Example, Proc. of the 4th IFToMM International Symposium on Linkage and Computer Aided Design Methods, 1985, Bucharest, Romania, Vol. Ⅱ1, 163170
89. Huang Z., Synthesis of a Dyad Balance the Inertia Input of CrankRocker Mechanism, Proc. of the 4th IFToMM International Symposium on Linkage and Computer Aided Design Methods, 1985, Bucharest, Romania, Vol.I1,185192，
90. Huang Z., Yan J., The 1 and 2Order InfluenceCoefficient Matrix and Kinematics of Spatial MultiLoop Mechanisms, Proc. Of the 4th IFToMM International Symposium on Linkage and Computer Aided Design Methods, 1985, Bucharest, Romania, Vol. Ⅱ1
91. Yan J., Huang Z., Kinematical Analysis of MultiLoop Spatial Mechanism, Proc. Of the 4th IFToMM International Symposium on Linkage and Computer Aided Design Methods, 1985, Bucharest, Romania, Vol. Ⅱ2, 439446.( Yan Jun, Huang Zhen, Kinematic Analysis of MultiLoop Spatial Mechanisms, Journal of South China University of Technology, 1985,13(4):1827)
国内一级期刊
92. Li SH., Huang Z., Instantaneous Kinematic Characteristics of aspecial 3UPU Parallel Manipulator, Chinese J of Mechanical Engineering, 2005, 18(3):376381
93. 李秦川，黄真，Herve,少自由度并联机构的唯一流行综合理论，中国科学，2004，34（9）：1011～1020（Li Qinchuan, Huang Zhen, Jacques Marie Herve, Displacement Manifold Method for Type Synthesis of LowerMobility Parallel Mechanisms, Science in China, Ser.E Engineering & Materials, 2004, 47(6):641650.
94. 黄真，李秦川， 少自由度并联机器人机构的型综合，中国科学,2003,33(9): 813819.
95. Huang Z. Li QC., Type Synthesis Principle of MinorMobility Parallel Manipulators, Science in China, 45(3):241248,2002(中国科学)
 科研获奖信息
 1.并联机器人机构的现代分析与综合理论 教育部提名国家科学技术奖自然科学 一等奖，第一名，2006
2.对称少自由度并联机器人机型综合及机构分析理论 河北省自然科学 一等奖，第一名，2005
3.《并联机器人机构学理论及控制》 河北省科技进步 一等奖，第一名，2000
4.并联机器人机构学及理论 国家教委科技进步（甲类） 一等奖，第一名，1991
5.六足步行机器人的驱动仿生和机构学参数仿生 国家教育部科技进步（基础类） 二等奖，第一名，1999
6.连杆机构动力平衡理论 河北省科技进步 二等奖，第一名，1993
7.李秦川博士论文，全国优秀博士论文提名奖，指导教师，2005
8.中国机械工程学会机构学委员会，首届机构学学术创新奖，2002
9.国家自然科学基金项目（资助号：50075074），优秀项目奖，2004
10.并联机器人和机器人误差补偿器，河北省第十届技术交流会及第七届发明博览会金奖，1996
 社会信息
 社会兼职信息
 1.中国机械工程学会机构学专业委员会, 名誉主任
2.中国机械工程学会机械工业自动化学会, 常务理事
3.中国机械工程学会机械传动学会, 常务理事
4.北京工业大学，兼职教授
5.浙江理工大学，兼职教授
6.安徽理工大学，兼职教授
 荣誉称号
 学习工作简历
 黄真，男，汉族，1936年2月出生，江苏宜兴人，教授，1959年毕业于哈尔滨工业大学机械工艺专业，现任燕山大学教授,博士生导师。
他是我国最早的一位从事并联机器人研究的学者，也是该领域的最著名的学者。他多次参加国际学术活动，在国际上已有较大的影响，特别是在2004年举行有44个国家500多名学者参加的国际机器和机构学学会国际学术年会第11届大会上，他为6个中心发言人之一。
他主要从事机器人学、和并联机器人机械学等方面的研究工作。多年来，先后承担国家自然科学基金项目9项，国家863项目3项，国家科技攻关等项目共计20余项。已在国内外发表论文280余篇，其中国际著名杂志《Mechanism and Machine Theory》、《International Journal of Robotics Research》, 《Journal of Robotic Systems》，《ASME Journal of Mechanical Design》发表30余篇；ASME、IEEE等国际会议发表论文50余篇；《中国科学》及国内一级学术杂志《机械工程学报》、《中国机械工程》、等发表论文40余篇。其中129篇次被三大索引（SCI－33、EI－88和ISTP－8）收录，他引总共369次。出版专著《空间机构学》（1991年）和《并联机器人机构学理论及控制》（1997年），后者被审定为“全国高技术重点图书”。今年他的专著《高等空间机构学》又被教育部审定为全国研究生指定教材，已于2006年6月出版。
他的研究成果已获国家教育部科自然科学1等奖2项，河北省科技进步1等奖2项等科技奖励共计16项。目前，作为课题主要负责人主持国家自然科学基金等项目2项及河北省高层次特别优秀人才支持计划。
黄真教授治学严谨、知识渊博、诲人不倦，直到现在的近70岁的高龄仍旧奋战在科学研究的第一线。黄真教授在工作中他多次受到党和政府的表彰，多次被评为省管优秀专家。并多次获秦皇岛市劳动模范、河北省劳动模范和原机械工业部劳动模范等光荣称号。
RESEARCH CONTENTS
The parallel manipulator (PM) has important applications both in military and civil aspects, such as aviation, spaceflight, bioengineering and medical appliance, radiotelescope, micromechanism and parallel machine tool etc. However, its mechanical principle is much more complicated than that of the serial one. At the beginning of the 80s of the last century, there were only about 10 persons represented by Prof. Hunt who were doing the research in parallel robots when Prof. Huang Zhen was in the research group in America. In the past 20 years, Prof. Huang has done systematic contribution in this field.
His researches have been supported by three 863 projects and nine NSFCs (Nature Science Fund of China). He has published more than 280 technical papers, including 30 papers in international journals, and 56 papers in international conferences; and two academic books. He and his research group in China obtained many awards from the National Education Ministry and the Hebei provincial government. He was invited to give a Keynote Speech at the 11th IFToMM Word Congress in 2004.
The detailed contributions of his group are as follows:
A. MOBILITY PRINCIPLE AND METHODOLOGY (1997)
The mobility analysis is the most basic task for mechanism analysis. People often use GrüblerKutzbach Criterion to analyze the mobility. However, those results were sometimes wrong, such as:
1. In 1978, Prof. Suh enumerated many mechanisms since 1853 in his book which could not be analyzed by the GK criterion, including Bennett, Sarrus, Goldberg, Bricard and Franke;
2. In 1984, Prof. Sandor pointed out that there was no simple approach which can be used to judge whether a mechanism mobility can be determined by the GK criterion or not, and the judgment was based on personal experience.
3. In 2000, Prof. Merlet wrote “The use of this strictly combinatorial formula can sometimes lead to mistakes because it does not take the geometric relations between the joints into consideration.”
4. In 2005, Prof. Gogu collected many instances which do not suit the GK criterion, including the classical mechanisms and modern parallel mechanisms.
From the analysis above, it can be concluded that the mobility analysis using the GK Criterion often leads to mistakes, and it becomes a more serious problem recently. Therefore, people have been paying attention to the issue for about 150 years, but the real and practical value of these approaches is very limited in spite of their valuable theoretical foundations.
Recently, Rico and Ravani studied the issue by using group theory. But for the simplest issue in mechanics modern algebra has to be used, which is not easy to master for numerous mechanical engineers. In the mean time, there are some Chinese Professors studying the issue also.
Anyway, the mobility analysis as a basic issue in mechanical engineering has lasted for about 150 years and becomes a hot topic recently.
It is so difficult because it needs to find the rank of a nonlinear equation system. For this matter, he find another way and dexterously avoid the nonlinear matter and obtain the global mobility.
1. In Huang’s book published in 1991, he defined the common constraint by reciprocal screw of the mechanism screw system, and analyzed the global mobility of the fourbar linkage. Based on this definition the common constraint has a clear physical signification, and the order of the mechanism is also determined.
2. In the book published by Huang et al. in 1997, he further discussed the global mobility. Besides using the concept of common constraint, he analyzed the redundant constraint appeared when several limbs are connected to the moving platform. Using the idea he analyzed the 3RRRH mechanism, where H indicates the helical pair. The correct mobility result is obtained when considering the common constraint together with the redundant constraint.
The reason of his approach avoidable to analyze the nonlinear equation system is that he do not apply the global coordinate system to build the nonlinear equations but just research the limb screw system by the limb coordinate system. He pointed out that it can select the most convenient limbcoordinatesystems to create the simplest screw expressions. Many elements in screw expressions will be 0 or 1, and the values of other elements are not important and need not to be consider. All these make it possible to readily obtain the reciprocal screws acting on the output, only by observation. After analysis of the first limb, the reciprocal screws of the other limbs and the mechanism mobility can be obtained just by observation or simple logical ratiocination. Another important characteristic of this method is it is quite easy to distinguish whether the mobility is instantaneous or not. Actually in 1997, the global mobility analysis principle based on the constraint screw is founded, together with the idea of modified GK Criterion.
Then, the modified formula of mobility containing the common and the redundant constraints was given out. Although the form of the modified formula is similar to the ones proposed by other people, but it is completely different how to use the same formula.
3. For the classical mechanisms, Huang analyzed the Sarrus, the spatial 4P (the mechanism with four prismatic pairs), and the spatial RCPP mechanisms. Especially, he analyzed the important Bennett mechanism, and it is clearly and readily to prove that the mobility is not instantaneous.
4. For the modern parallel mechanisms, his group analyzed the 3UPU, Delta, CPM, 3CRR TPM and Orthoglide.
5. The mobility analyses of more than 100 mechanisms which his research group proposed were correctly analyzed without any exception, and all mobilities are readily to be proved not instantaneous.
Because the mobility principle and methodology only depends on the most basic part of the screw theory, it is readily to be held for person who learned the linear algebra. The procedure of mobility analysis is simple, and it can be completed just with a piece of paper and a pencil and for a few minutes.
From the facts mentioned above it is clear that in 1997 he founded the global mobility principle based on the constraint screw, and the mobility principle is successful and not difficult to use. Now there is certainly no problem for analyzing the modern parallel mechanism.
B. MECHANISM THEORY OF LOWERMOBILITY PARALLEL MANIPULATORS (analysis and synthesis) (2003)
The research history of lowermobility parallel manipulator (LMPM) including analysis and synthesis has lasted for more than 20 years, but its development is so slow. Especially, the number of LMPMs is so small and this is a serious problem. The competition of mechanism synthesis/invention of LMPM is impetuous at the beginning of the new century.
1. Mechanism Synthesis Principle Based on Constraint Screw
The LMPM is divided into nine kinds: the fiveDOF PM consists of 3R2T(R means the revolute mobility and T the translational mobility) and 2R3T; the fourDOF PM consists of 3R1T, 2R2T and 1R3T; the 3DOF has 2R1T, 1R2T, 3R and 3T. Before 2000 the research had mainly been concentrated on 3DOF symmetrical mechanism which is relatively easy as it generally has no overconstraint.
In 2002, Prof. Merlet pointed out that there were two principles: the enumerative approach “it is difficult to ensure that all possibilities presented; group theory which is limited as it is necessary to preserve the group mathematical structure”. It is identifiable that it is quite difficult to build a synthesis theory suitable for all nine kinds of LMPMs. This is the practical situation at the beginning of this century.
In 1996, Huang synthesized some LMPMs using screw theory. Then, in 1997 the idea developed and a 3RRRH symmetrical parallel mechanism with global mobility was synthesized in his book. In 2000, 2002 and 2003 all nine kinds of symmetrical parallel mechcanisms with 3, 4, and 5DOF, were systemitically synthesized by using the constraint screw theory, respectively. That is to say, by 2003 the general and effective mechanism synthesis theory based on constraint screw had been formed. Based on the theory people can easily synthesize mechanisms with any expectant freedom. Since the mobility principle only use basic screw theory, it is easy to grasp by numerous mechanical engineers who learned the linear algebra.
Using the theory his group published 27 papers and synthesized all the nine kinds of symmetrical PMs with identical limbs, including the first fullysymmetrical 5DOF PM and the 4DOF one.
2. The Analysis Theory of LMPM
For the serial robot the study becomes simpler when its mobility reduces. On the contrary, the study becomes complicated when the mobility of the parallel mechanism reduces, since many new untouched theoretical issues appear. He and his research group studied the issues including the concepts of incomplete rotational freedom, and the existence space of rotational axes of LMPM. He and his research group have also studied the instantaneous motion of some 3DOF PM based on the screw theory. In 1999 the twodimension distribution of pitches and threedimention distribution of axes for motion screw of the 3DOF parallel mechanisms are built, which is useful for robot planning.
The kinematic analysis of LMPT is different from that of the Stewart platform since LMPT has more links in its limbs. Therefore, its position analysis sometimes becomes as difficult as that of Stewart, and it even has as many as 64 solutions. Based on the Duffy’s spherical analysis theory he and his research group have derived the closed solution of a 5DOF PM. On the kinematic analysis they used the virtual mechansm method with virtual kinematic pairs. Recently they also build the Jacobian and Hessian matrices without the virtual kinematic pair, therefore, it will be more useful.
C. SINGULARITY CURVE AND ITS CONSTRUCT (2004)
The singularity problem of parallel mechaism is quite difficult, espetially the 6/6GoughStewart (“6/6” means that the upper and lower platforms are both hexagon). In the 80s of last century some isolated singular points of the Stewart platform were found, such as Hunt’s singularity, Fichter’s singularity, Merlet’s singularities. However, people had been attempting to obtain their singular loci all the time. In 2000, StOnge and Gosselin proposed an approach, and obtained some of the singular loci.
After 1999 based on the kinematic singularity principle, they successively discussed the 3/6 and 6/6Stewart singularities.
1. They have built the simpler polynomial expression of degree three of the 3/6 PM(the upper is a triangle), and obtained its full singular loci and identified its geometrical property.
2. Based on the 3/6 knowledge his research group have founded the simpler singular equation of 6/6, its full singular surface and identified its geometrical property. In 2004, they further studied the orientation singularity and nonsingular orientation workspace, and researched on the orientation sphere to describe the nonsingular space.
3. His research group have studied the singularity of the typical 3RPS mechanism, including finding its singularity loci and typical singular configurations.
4. In 1987, his research group built the Jacobian matrix and found the special configuration of the 6/6GoughStewart. It is the first study on the Jacobian and singularity of the 6/6type PM.
D. KINEMATIC INFLUENCE COEFFICIENT OF PARALLEL MECHANISM AND KINEMATICS (1985)
For kinematic analysis of the Stewart platform, the vector method is used frequently since the mechanism has only one link in each limb and the structure is simpler. However, for mechanisms with more links in limbs, the vector method is not convenient, and the analysis procedure/formulas are also not canonical. The most typical 6DOF parallel mechanism is 66R proposed by Duffy. The analysis of 66R is more difficult. Duffy had only analyzed the velocity of the 66R in 1984 by using screw theory. At that time Huang developed the kinematic influence coefficient (KIC) proposed by Tesar, and published two important papers. Huang built the first and secondorder KICs for the parallel mechanisms, and firstly found the corresponding acceleration equations and the dynamic model of the parallel mechanism. This work is the cornerstone of our mechanics theory. Actually, his many subsequent works followed that. The approach has many nice properties, such as that all equations including velocity and acceleration of the PMs are explicit; it needs not to differentiate for velocity and acceleration; the KIC is independent of the kinematic parameters (input joint velocities and accelerations) and can be obtained before kinematic analysis; the KIC in matrix form can be easily transferred to other mathematic formats, especially, from KIC to screw or rightabout. In addition, the more complex the mechanism is the more convenient to analyze mechanism kinematics. Therefore, it is a very useful tool for the analysis of complex mechanisms.
Most of their subsequent researches such as the overdetermine input, antificial limb, bionic walking machine, instantaneous kinematics, virtual mechanism method, etc. use the KIC method. In addition, to do the dynamic analysis of the 66R generally needs to solve a 186×186 matrix. However, it needs only to solve 6×6 matrices with the KIC method.
E. THE OVERDETERMINATE INPUT (1994)
For the parallel manipulator, multiple cooperating manipulators and sixlegged walking machine, there exists overdeterminateinput issue. That means the number of inputs of the mechanism is bigger than the freedom of the machine. The concept is different from the socalled “redundant input”, and the latter means the case when the number of inputs is bigger than the freedoms of the output bar, for instance, the 7R robot. In 1994 his research group published a paper on the accordance and optimization distribution equations of the overdeterminate input. These equations given in the paper are uniform and explicit, and convenient for application.
F. THE BIONIC WALKING MACHINE (1999)
He and his research group proposed the bionic input and bionic structure parameters of multilegged walking machines, and discussed the machines walking on land and under water. The machines have high flexibility and lower energy consumption and will be built in the future. This is also one of the applications of parallel mechanism theory.
In conclusion, he and his research group for 20 years have formed a more systematic theory of the parallel manipulator. Based on these works they have written a book, “Advanced Spatial Mechanism”, and will be published very soon.
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